ЕГЭ по английскому языку – Полезные фразы для письменной части (эссе)

Здесь я рассмотрю, пожалуй, самое муторное (для тех, кто не любит писать) и самое творческое (для всех остальных 0,0001% экзаменующихся) задание в письменной части ЕГЭ по английскому языку. Если вы выловили эту статью в Интернете случайно, не забудьте сначала прочитать мои мысли по поводу того, к чему готовиться на ЕГЭ, и конкретнее – как без труда написать достойное письмо другу. А теперь за дело…

 

Темы эссе могут быть разными, поэтому слова и выражения вам желательно знать из разных тематик, но если вы играете в компьютерные игры (на английском), смотрите оригинальные фильмы, а главное – читаете, читаете и ещё раз читаете книжки и статьи на английском, проблем у вас быть не должно. Я же коснусь того, как понять заранее, чего от вас хотят, и получить высший бал малой кровью, поскольку всё действительно совсем не так сложно, как кажется. Поехали.

 

Тема-проблема. Этому посвятите первый абзац. Ваша задача: сформулировать проблему, данную в задании. Хорошо бы при этом использовать синонимы ключевых слов, чтобы показать свои недюжинные познания. Потом намекните, какая позиция ближе вам. При этом старайтесь обходиться без всяких I think, а пишите безлично или неопределённо-лично, чтобы не лишний раз подчеркнуть свою объективность. Здесь вам могут понадобиться следующие выражения (не перевожу их из уважения к вам):

 

Many people think … but others do not agree.

Let us consider what the advantages and disadvantages of … are.

Let’s consider some pros and cons of it.

Let us start by considering the facts.

Let us start by considering pros and cons of it.

It is generally agreed today that …

 

 

Если нужно сопоставить аргументы «за» и «против», вот вам ещё на заучивание небольшой список полезных языковых клише, то есть штампов:

 

To begin with, … 

Firstly, ... / Secondly, ... / Finally, ...

One argument in support of ...

The first thing that needs to be said is ...

First and foremost …

It is true / clear / noticeable that ...

One should note here that ...

Another good thing about … is that …

The second reason for ...

It is often said that ...

It is undeniable that...

It is a well-known fact that ...

For the great majority of people ...

We live in a world in which ...

A number of key issues arise from the statement. For instance, ...

One of the most striking features of this problem is ...

First of all, let us try to understand ...

The public in general tend to believe that ...

What is more, …

Besides, … because it is …

Doubtless, ...

One cannot deny that ...

It is (very) clear from these observations that ...

On the other hand, we can observe that ...

The other side of the coin is, however, that ...

Another way of looking at this question is to ...

One should, nevertheless, consider the problem from another angle.

One should, however, not forget that ...

If on the one hand it can be said that ... the same is not true for ...

On the other hand, …

Furthermore, one should not forget that ...

In addition to ...

Nevertheless, one should accept that ...

However, we also agree that ...

We cannot ignore the fact that ...

Perhaps we should also point out the fact that ...

It would be unfair not to mention that fact that ....

One must admit that ...

One cannot possibly accept the fact that ...

From these facts, one may conclude that ...

Which seems to confirm the idea that ...

Thus, ... / Therefore,...

The most common argument against this is that ...

 

 

Всегда имеет смысл сослаться на каких-нибудь мифических специалистов:

 

According to some experts...

Experts believe / say / suggest / are convinced / point out / emphasize that …

 

В заключительной части вы делаете вывод, используя, например, такие штампы:

 

In conclusion, I can say that although … , …

To draw the conclusion, one can say that …

So it’s up to everybody to decide whether … or not.

The arguments we have presented  suggest / prove / would indicate that ...

From these arguments one must / could / might conclude that ... .

 

В интернете можно при желании найти уйму образцов правильно написанных (хотя и очень скучных) эссе по английскому ЕГЭ, так что нижеследующее я просто позаимствовал, благо не в коммерческих целях. Почитайте, хотя на вашем месте я парочку просто выучил бы наизусть, чтобы во время экзамена иметь в голове чёткое клише, где останется только заменить слова из тематики.

 

 

Единый язык для всей планеты. За и против

 

No doubt that learning languages takes up a lot of time. That is why some people think that it would be better to have only one language on our planet. But will it be really beneficial for mankind?

 

In my opinion, the reduction of the number of languages is a disaster because it will totally destroy our great cultural heritage. With each loss of a language comes a loss of a culture, a loss of a way of life that deserves to be protected and treated as valuable. I also believe that leaving one language for communication will greatly reduce the linguistic diversity of our planet, which is the key to our survival. What is more, it will be rather difficult to choose which language to use and it may even lead to wars.

 

Many people think that if we have only one language, communication will become easier and there will be no need to learn foreign languages. I cannot agree with them because knowledge of foreign languages makes a person educated and well rounded. You cannot broaden your mind if you see the world only from the perspective of your own culture. Besides, people are a lot more helpful if you speak their language.

 

In conclusion, I would argue that we should try our best to preserve the linguistic diversity of our planet. I think that larger cultures should have a respect for minority languages, but first of all the younger generation must want to preserve their native language.

 

Животные в зоопарке. Как вы к этому относитесь. Справедливо ли это

 

There are a lot of zoos in the world and millions of people visit them every year. But are zoos harmful or helpful to animals which are caged there?

 

I strongly believe that we should not keep animals in zoos because captivity is not natural for them and it is a constant stress to a wild animal. Keeping animals in zoos harms them by denying them freedom of movement and association. What is more, zoos are like prisons for animals as they live in small cages and do not get necessary food. In addition, animals become very aggressive and unpredictable as they get older and often attack zoo keepers and other people.

 

However, most people think that zoos help endangered species survive. But this is not true because most rare animals are extremely difficult to breed in captivity. Besides, in zoos, it is almost impossible to meet the animals’ natural needs. Another argument for keeping animals in zoos is that people learn something new about these animals. Actually, zoos do not teach us much because animals do not act the way they would in the wild. I think we can learn more about animals by watching wildlife programs on TV.

 

In conclusion, I would argue that zoos do not seem to help endangered species and keeping animals behind bars only for the sake of our entertainment is not quite fair. In my opinion, people must create nature reserves, where wild animals will be able to live in their natural environment.

Запрещение машин в центрах больших городов. За или против

 

There is no doubt that the invention of the car changed the world and nowadays we can hardly find a family without a car. Nevertheless, some people are against cars, especially in the centers of big cities.

 

In my opinion, cars should not be allowed into the city centers as they add to pollution and poison the air we breathe. We must also think about the people who live in the center and suffer from the noise made by cars. Moreover, the streets in the center are usually narrow therefore people are often stuck in traffic for many hours and, as a result, arrive late at their destination. Final-ly, with ho cars in city centers, there would be no need for large ugly car parks, which would allow more space for parks. However, many people believe we would not be able to survive without cars because most of the products for shops and other businesses are transported by cars. Besides, they are afraid that public transport would be overloaded. I am sure it is possible to solve these problems by introducing a reliable high frequency tram service as well as developing the underground. As for goods, we could use electric vehicles for their delivery.

 

To sum up, I believe that a clean, reliable and environmentally friendly public service would encourage people to use public transport and help smooth the transition to a car-free zone.

 

Изучение иностранного языка – лучшее, что может быть, изучать его в стране, где на нем разговаривают. Согласны ли вы

 

Nowadays people spend lots of money in order to go to an English-speaking country to improve their language skills. But is it really the most effective way of learning a language? In my view, studying in a foreign country has certain drawbacks. Firstly, this way is very expensive as the tuition fee for overseas students is rather high. Besides, when you study abroad, you have to adapt to a very different way of life, which can be quite stressful. What is more, English teachers do not speak Russian so if you don’t know English well, you will not understand their explanation.

 

It is often assumed that it is better to study a language abroad because you can always use it speaking with native speakers. However, I doubt that we will have lots of opportunities to speak abroad as we do not know many people there. It is also believed that Russian teachers are not as qualified as those in England. I totally disagree with this opinion because Russian teachers can compare two languages and explain grammar rules better.

 

To sum up, I would argue that the best way to learn a language is to study it in your native country because you can always get the necessary help from your teachers. Moreover, today we have lots of opportunities to improve our skills such as communicating with English pen-friends over the Internet. I think that we should travel abroad so as to practise a language but not to study it.

 

Иностранные языки. Сейчас в школах изучают по 2-3 языка. За и против

 

Most people understand that without knowledge of foreign languages it is difficult to survive in the modern world. Therefore they send their children to schools where they can study two or even three foreign languages. However, is it good to study several languages simultaneously? On the one hand, foreign languages are the main part of our culture so they help us to expand our outlook. We cannot broaden our minds if we see the world only from the perspective of our own culture. In addition, learning languages is a good exercise for the intellect. Moreover, if pupils know at least one foreign language, they learn new languages much faster. On the other hand, many pupils find it confusing to learn two or three languages at a time, especially languages that are similar, because children usually mix up lots of words. Besides, some languages are tricky enough to learn. For example, in English there are more exceptions than rules. In this case, children can be overloaded with homework. More than that, some pupils do not know their native language well and learning several foreign languages could prevent them from mastering their own language.

 

In conclusion, I want to say that learning languages is extremely beneficial and I would like to know different foreign languages. However, I believe children should not learn too many languages at the same time so as not to get confused. They ought to get a solid base in one language before they start learning a new one. 16. Интернет. За и против We live in the age of information technology and nowadays the Internet is nearly as common as the telephone. No doubt that it is a unique invention, which has influenced all areas of our lives. However, some people consider the Internet one of the greatest evils of our time. On the one hand, the Internet is very useful, because it lets us access a world of facts, figures and knowledge. In addition, with the Internet, it is now possible to speak to friends and relatives any-where in the world cheaply and quickly. Other services are also available through the Internet such as booking tickets or buying things. Moreover, the Internet allows a lot of talented people to show the world their achievements and makes it easier to find a job. On the other hand, the Internet can become a disaster for our society, because people spend hours in front of their computers and neglect their everyday duties. Another worry is the activities of cybercriminals. For example, hackers can steal your money or even your property while cyberterrorists may ‘attack’ the world’s computers, causing chaos, and making planes and trains crash. What is more, leaders of different terrorist or oppositional organizations can use the Internet to find new followers.

 

In conclusion, I strongly believe that despite the criticisms by some and the fears of others, the Internet seems to have changed our world to the better and we must try to make the best use of it.

Клонирование. За и против

 

Recent advances in genetic biology have led us to quite a doubtful situation. People all over the world argue whether human cloning research should be controlled by the government as solving problems connected with human cloning is definitely not a piece of cake. In my opinion, human cloning experiments are extremely dangerous because there are huge risks of abnormalities in human clones. Moreover, if clones have been made, they will obviously have serious psychological problems connected with their unusual birth. Finally, there is no doubt that human cloning will change our perception of what is the value of a human life as we might change from having children to manufacturing them. However, scientists claim that human cloning could be very beneficial as therapeutic cloning could provide stem cells for regenerative medicine and tissues for transplantation. Besides, re-productive cloning will probably give parents who are both infertile an opportunity to have children. I am afraid that this technology is not safe enough to use on humans. It is also possible that clones will age quicker since the cell used in the cloning procedure has already been used in a real life individual.

 

To sum up, we must question whether human cloning is really worth it when weighed against the problems it raises. From my point of view, human reproductive cloning should be under the tight control of the government and the UN because it is dangerous to interfere with nature and the consequences can be really disastrous.


Книги или компьютеры. Кто победит в будущем

 

The latest advances in information technology make people think that schools of the future will use computers instead of printed books. Although electronic books have not been widely accepted yet, they have certain advantages over traditional paper volumes. But will they be able to replace printed books? In my opinion, students will be widely using computers for studying in the future. To begin with, computers can store lots of books in their memory and modern software allows us to find quickly the necessary information. Besides, with the interactive programs on computers studying will be much more exciting. What is more, electronic books will not degrade overtime like their printed counterparts. On the other hand, lots of disbelievers argue that computers will not replace printed books because a printed book is better for human eyes than a computer screen. In addition, books are cheaper and easier to use since they do not need electricity or the Internet connection. I cannot agree with this because modern computer screens emit no radiation and allow us to read even in low light conditions. Of course we will have to pay for electricity but I think it will be cheaper than to pay for printed books, which are very expensive nowadays.

 

To sum up, I think computers and printed books will peacefully coexist for years to come, but in the future technological progress will make it possible for students to carry laptops or even palmtops instead of traditional bags with lots of heavy books.

 

Компьютерные игры. За и против

 

People have always had different hobbies but technological progress has caused the appearance of computers and computer games, which can keep a child occupied for hours. However, adults consider computer games a complete waste of time. As for me, I believe computer games are more than mindless entertainment. To begin with, computer games can teach people to achieve their aims as they regularly put obstacles and traps in the way of players which are necessary to overcome in order to progress through the rest of the game. Additionally, computer games can be a valuable source of accidental learning that can be applied to school, home, and social events. Moreover, teachers have also started to appreciate educational games as an opportunity to make their lessons more exciting. Nevertheless, quite a few people are against this activity as they find it rather addictive and harmful for children’s health. They argue that computer games make students neglect their school work. However, if we learn to control our computer use and play games for an hour just to relax after a hard day at school, this will not do us any harm. What is more, modern technology made it possible to eliminate the bad effect of computers on our eyes.

 

To sum up, I believe that computer games have more advantages than drawbacks. They make us persistent, develop our logical reasoning and help us to escape from everyday problems. The thing is to find a right balance between virtual reality and everyday reality.

 

Космос. За и против исследований в космосе

 

Space exploration can mean a major leap for mankind. However, it is often criticized because the price for these space experiments is too high, especially while poverty still exists in many parts of the world. On the one hand, space research is extremely beneficial as it advances technology. As a result of this work, we have lots of inventions, which have made our lives much more comfortable. In addition, through the exploration of space, we could find new elements, minerals or even discover new laws of physics and eventually learn more about ourselves. What is more, space exploration will allow us to establish a human civilization on another planet as a hedge against the catastrophe that might occur on the Earth. On the other hand, the benefits of space exploration are not self-evident, no matter how real they are. It costs billions of dollars to fund the projects of space science whereas this money should rather be spent on meeting the needs of the underprivileged. Besides, some of the technology we develop through space science can be used in a destructive manner if it is in the wrong hands. Finally, a travel to space can be dangerous as we may discover something that is extremely harmful for the living beings on Earth.

To conclude, I want to say that space exploration satisfies the human desire for adventure therefore most people are interested in space research. Nevertheless, I believe our governments should find the right balance between social and space programs.

 

 

 

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Удачи!

 

 

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